Home Up Blues Weaves Blue Dyes Fading Experimental Netting Mesh Size Visual Ecology Bibliography

Blue Dyes

This section provides information on dyes for cotton that I have examined as alternatives to "Phthalogen Blue" . This is a brilliant, permanent blue that attracts biting flies. Although some phthalogen dyestuffs (IF3GM, IF3GK, IBN) are still used for specific applications (Miles, 2003), these historical Ingrain dyes for cotton developed by Bayer in the 1950's are now rarely used for solid-shade dyeing. Hence, genuine phthalogen blue cloth for traps is extremely difficult to obtain.

After testing various dyes, I have found only one type of reactive dye that can serve as a practical substitute. Traps dyed a DEEP greenish-blue = turquoise with reactive dyes such as Procion Turquoise M-G (there are many options) perform as well or better than  traps dyed phthalogen blue. These CuPc-based reactive dyes contain sulphonated chromophores (Miles, 2003) and are likely mixtures of several compounds (Paula Burch). Conneely et al. (1999) state that Remazol Turquoise G is tetrasulphonated with one or two modified sulphonate groups. None of the structures of the CuPc-based reactive dyes were listed in the last paper edition of the Colour Index. Osugi et al. (2003) have shown that Reactive Blue 15 or Cibacron Turquoise FGF-P is a tetra-sulphonated CuPc dye (PDF). Meng et al. (2005) likely contains similar information, but I have not seen the publication.

The two CuPc-based reactive dyes I have worked with keep their brilliant colour for a useful period of time, but will fade much faster than ingrain or vat dyes (Weathering of Fabrics). Some other examples of typical reactive dyes available to the consumer based on CuPc are Remazol Turquoise G (Reactive Blue 21) and Procion Turquoise H-A (Reactive Blue 71). These are available from Pro Chemical & Dye under the codes H-A and LR410 as turquoise dyes. See Paula Burch's web site for information on other suppliers of dyes to consumers as there are many options around the world.

High-performance dyes with multiple reactive groups are used in industrial dyeing (requiring higher temperatures), but are not available nor practical, for the consumer. It may be possible to dye turquoise-fabrics with better weathering properties, but this seems to still be an elusive target (Gorenšek & Sedeljšak, 2000).

Taylor, J.A. (2000) Recent developments in reactive dyes. Review of Progress in Coloration 30, 93-107.

I have a basic interest in phthalogen blue dyes, both the ingrain dyes and the many metal phthalocyanine dyes, reactive or otherwise, that produce deep, brilliant blue or greenish-blue colours on any fabric, not just cotton. I'd be happy to exchange reference samples to learn more about what is being used around the world to produce these specific colours.

 Contact me at smihok@rogers.com.

Practical Blue Dyes
Colours & Chemical Structures
Industrial Dyeing
CuPc - C.I. Pigment Blue 15
Phthalogen Blue Cottons
Colour Comparisons
Home Dyeing
CuPc Reactive Dyes
References

 Note that the swatches displayed on a computer monitor are not able
to reproduce subtle differences in colour

For an introduction to dyeing and many useful links see Paula Burch's Dyeing web site. Pro Chemical & Dye is a convenient source of dyes and auxiliaries in North America; this company also provides practical instructions on how to use reactive dyes. Many reactive dyes are no longer under patent, and hence there are many retail sources around the world.

The Society of Dyers and Colorists (SDC) in the UK is the best source for reference books (e.g. Ingamells (1993) for a simple overview, and Shore (1995) and similar recent books for a detailed technical treatment). Along with the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists, the SDC produces the authoritative reference on dyes, the Colour Index International. The current electronic reference is expensive and hence hard to find in any library, but the third edition can usually be found in major academic libraries. What I present here has been assembled from the third edition (1971) and its updates to Volume 9 in 1987, and from diverse textbooks.

For anyone interested in the forensic identification of dyes in textiles, there is an excellent treatment of this topic in Robertson & Grieve (1999). Practical information is also available in a major publication produced in 1999 by the FBI Forensic Fiber Examination Guidelines.

Although definitive  identification of dyes can be a daunting task requiring sophisticated procedures, some simple and practical tests are also informative. For example, excellent light fastness and resistance to chlorine bleach can help differentiate properly-dyed phthalogen blue cloth from many other blue fabrics (Salvin, 1968). Resin-bonded phthalogen blue fabrics can also be differentiated from ingrain-dyed fabrics by  examination of the fabric if one teases out the fibres (see Weaves for examples). Resin-bonded fabrics show only surface colouration, with poor penetration where fibres cross. Fabrics dyed with ingrain dyes (but also reactive, vat,  etc. dyes) have uniform, deep coloration throughout all fibres. There are many simple tests like this that can be done with minimal fuss (Salvin, 1968).

 

Selected Blue Dyes for Cotton

Trade Name

Colour Index
Chromophore
C.I. Number
Prochem Catalog Identifier
References
REACTIVE DYES
Dichlorotriazine Reactive Group
Dichlorotriazine
 
Procion
Brilliant Blue
M-R
[ICI 1956]
RB 4
Bright Blue
Anthraquinone
61205
Pro MX
Basic Blue 400
C.I. (1971) Vol. 3,
Smith (1993),
Christie (2001)
Procion Turquoise
M-G
[ICI 1974]
RB 140
Bright Greenish Blue
Copper phthalocyanine
No C.I. Number
(likely sulphonated)
Pro MX
Turquoise 410
C.I. (Jul 1975)
Vol. 6
Procion Blue
M-G
[ICI 1975]
RB 163
Greenish Blue
Triphenodioxazine
No. C.I. Number
bis(dichlorotriazine)
Pro MX
Intense Blue 406
C.I (1982) Vol. 7,
Hunger (2003)

Monofluorotriazine
 
Cibacron Navy
F-G
[CGY 1979]
RB 184
Navy Blue
Disazo
No C.I. Number
Sabracon F
Deep Navy
F-47
C.I. (1982)
Vol. 7
Cibacron Turquoise
F-G
[CGY < 1971?)
RB # Unknown
Bright Greenish Blue
Phthalocyanine
 
Sabracon F
Turquoise
F-40
Not listed with this code, but may very well be Reactive Blue 15
Cibacron Blue
F-GF
[CGY 1983]
RB 204
Bright Blue
Triphenodioxazine
No C.I. Number
bis(aminofluorotriazine)
Sabracon F
Intense Blue
F-GF
C.I. (1987) Vol. 8
Smith (1993)
Hunger (2003)
Cibacron Blue
F-R
[CGY 1979]
RB 182
Blue
Copper formazan
No C.I. Number
Sabracon F
National Blue
F-41
C.I. (1982) Vol. 7,
Shore (1995),
Hunger (2003)
Vinylsulphone Reactive Group
Vinylsulphone [Warm Dyeing, 60 °C ]
Remazol
Brilliant Blue R
[Hoechst 1957]
 
RB 19
Bright Blue
Anthraquinone
61200
Liquid Reactive
Intense Blue
LR406
C.I. (1971) Vol. 3,
Smith (1993),
Shore (1995),
Christie (2001)

Bis(aminochlorotriazine)
[Hot dyeing, 80 °C]
Procion Blue
H-EGN
[ICI 1979]
RB 198
Blue
 
Triphenodioxazine
No. C.I. Number
Pro H
Basic Blue
H-EGN
C.I. (1987)
Vol. 8
Shore (1995)
Direct Dye
Direct Blue 86 9k
Direct Blue 86
Typical Industrial Turquoise Blue Dye

[HOT dyeing, 95 °C]

 

Direct Blue 86 Very Bright Greenish Blue Copper Phthalocyanine
74180
Not readily-available on the consumer market C.I. (1971) Vol. 2,
Shore (1995)
Vat Dye
Indanthrone
Indanthrone and Derivatives
C.I. Pigment Blue 60

[Warm Dyeing, Reduction Required]
Indanthrone
[1901]
VB 4
Bright Reddish Blue
Indanthrone
69800
Not sold by Prochem C.I. (1971) Vol. 3,
Shore (1995)
"Vat Blue BC"
[various tradenames]
VB 6
Bright Blue
Slightly Redder
7, 16 dichloro Indanthrone
69825
VD04
Blue
 
 
Colours & Chemical Structures
Bull denim natural cotton at 5% owg (wt/wt)
Trade Name

Colour

Structure

Procion
Brilliant Blue
M-R

Procion M-R

Anthraquinone
Dye shown

Procion Brilliant Blue M-R

Procion Turquoise
M-G

Procion Turquoise M-G 9k

CuPc
 Chromophore

Sulphonated as in similar CuPc turquoise dyes (Reactive Blue 15),

Likely containing multiple sulphonic groups and reactive groups in a complex mixture
Procion Blue
M-G

Procion Blue M-G

Triphenodioxazine
Chromophore

Cibacron Navy
F-G

Cibacron Navy F-G

Disazo
Chromophore

Exact nature of the disazo chromophore is not listed in the third edition of the Colour Index
Cibacron Turquoise F-G

Cibacron Turquoise F-G 9k

Phthalocyanine
Chromophore

Cibacron Turquoise Blue dyes  in the Colour Index  (1971)  are all based on copper phthalocyanine. There are many  older Cibacron dyes, making it hard to interpret what this retail product might be. (e.g. FGF-P = Reactive Blue 15?, G-E = Reactive Blue 7, 2G-E = Reactive Blue 41, GR-D = Reactive Blue 72).

Hunstman currently produces Novacron Turquoise H-GN.
Cibacron Blue
F-GF

Cibacron F-GF

Triphenodioxazine
Dye shown

Cibacron Blue
F-R

Cibacron F-R

Copper Formazan
Chromophore

Remazol
Brilliant Blue R

 

Remazol R

Anthraquinone

Dye shown

Remazol Brilliant Blue R

Procion Blue
H-EGN

Procion H-EGN

Triphenodioxazine
Chromophore

Direct Blue 86
(Water soluble, Sodium salt)
 

Direct Blue 86 9k

1,3 Sulphonated
CuPc shown

Vat Blue 6
Derivative of Indanthrone

(chlorinated)

Vat Blue 6 10 min

 Indanthrone shown

 

Industrial Dyeing with Copper Phthalocyanine

Trade Name

Colour Index
Chromophore
C.I. Number

Sources

References
Ingrain Dyes - Developers for CuPc on cotton
Pigment is formed "in situ" from intermediate compounds
Phthalogen Blue
IF3GM
[Bayer 1951]
IB 2:1
Bright Blue
 
Copper phthalocyanine
74160
(1,3-diiminoisoindoline and copper salt complex)
Dystar, Germany still makes these dyes for special applications

There are many suppliers in India:

Manibhadra
Sitaram
ICI
Lona
Monomer
C.I. (1971) Vol. 2,
Vollmann (1971),
Zollinger (1991),
Miles (2003)
Hunger (2003)

History and chemistry are explained  in Vollmann (1971)
Phthalogen Blue
IF3GK

[Bayer 1951]

IB 13
Bright Blue
 
Copper phthalocyanine
74161
(preformed polyisoindoline complex)
C.I. Pigment Blue 15
Phthalo Blue
"Red shade"

 
PB 15:1
Bright Blue
Alpha Copper phthalocyanine
74160
- Numerous applications in paints, plastics, paper inks, etc.

-  Halogenated and sulphonated CuPc chromophores are blue-green to green
C.I. (1971) Vol. 2,
Lewis (1988), Zollinger (1991), Loebbert (1996), Christie (2001), Kadish et al. (2003)
Herbst & Hunger (2004)
Phthalo Blue
"Green shade"
PB 15:3
Bright Blue

 
Beta Copper phthalocyanine
74160

CuPc-X is a common colorant in dyes and inks.
Only the Ingrain dye developers produce the brilliant blue
of native copper phthalocyanine directly on cotton.

The reliance of tsetse researchers in Africa on this particular blue for traps and targets is perhaps simply a historical artifact of timing and availability. This type of cloth was readily-available throughout Africa in the 1980's when cloth traps were  developed. Simple blue fabrics performed best in initial colour comparisons in both East and West Africa, so only minimal effort was expended on testing the many possible shades of blue that can be produced with various chromophores.

 

Copper phthalocyanineCuPc - C.I. Pigment Blue 15

Winsor & Newton Finity Artists' Acrylic Paints shown below; there are many similar paints on the market.

Paint was mixed about 1:10 with Liquitex Matte Medium and applied to a medium-weight bull denim cotton
(the same natural fabric dyed above).

BASF Pigment Reference Color Card
Moser & Thomas (1983)
1:3 mix with TiO2

With white primer undercoat  Direct application to fabric
15:1 (alpha isomer)
"Red shade"
15:3 (beta isomer)
"Green shade"

 

Genuine "Phthalogen Blue"
Dystar Phthalogen IF3GMReference - Phthalogen Brilliant Blue IF3GM
4% dyeing of cotton cloth, continuous pad-bake process
Dystar, Germany     [TDV Industries, France used this dye up to 2012]
 
Dystar Phthalogen IF3GK ThreadReference - Phthalogen Brilliant Blue IF3GK
4% dyeing of cotton thread, exhaust process
Dystar, Germany [Coates uses this dye]
Pantone® 293 CVC
The closest match in printing inks for coated paper to several genuine reference samples of cotton dyed with Phthlaogen Blue IF3GM
There are several other Phthalogen Blue dyestuffs that are used in India such as type IF3G (Ingrain Blue 2:2)  and type IBN (Ingrain Blue 5). Samples obtained from Manibhadra and Sitaram in 2006 and Chemitex in 2009 are illustrated below. Type IF3G is very similar to IF3GM and is used for solid-shade dyeing. Type IBN is printed and is much darker (cobalt phthalocyanine). Dyeing methods are outlined at Indian Chemical Industries.

IF3GM 5%

IF3G 4%

IBN 5% (printed)
Manibhadra
Dyes

INDIA

IF3GM 5%

IF3G 5%
Sitaram
Chemicals

INDIA
 
Chemitex IF3G Phthalogen Blue
IF3G 4%
Chemitex
Enterprises

INDIA
   
Ingrain Blue 2:1 (IF3GM) - Mount Kenya Textiles, Nanyuki, Kenya
Reference samples from various lots

The fabrics below are from one company in Kenya that was using this dye in the 1990s. The dye was purchased from Gharda Chemicals, which was the first company to reproduce these dyes in India.  The depth of shade is about 5+% relative to reference samples from Dystar and India.

Shade variation from different production runs in 1997

Kenya Textile Mills (Kicomi, Rivatex, Mountex)

These three fabrics are commonly referred to as "Jinja" cottons. They are light-weight fabrics from the retail shops in Nairobi. These fabrics were used in tsetse traps in East Africa in the 1990s and were almost surely produced by one of the three local textile mills (Kicomi = Kisumu cotton mills, closed since 1992; Rivatex = Rift Valley Textiles, closed in 1998 but now possibly restarted under the ownership of Moi University (News report on October 12, 2007); Mountex = Mount Kenya Textiles, Nanyuki, on/off operation under various owners, not operating but may be revived some day). All have the characteristic reflectance spectrum of Phthalogen Blue IF3GM, although their exact provenance is unknown.


Jinja 1993

Jinja 1996

Jinja 1996
Retail Fabrics
Shade and dyeing quality
was always quite variable

 

Imitation "Phthalogen Blue"
ZIMBABWE - Bonar Industries (Harare), starting in 1980, sold local cloth from Gatooma Textiles dyed with the original Bayer Phthalogen IF3GM dye. It reliably supplied genuine phthalogen blue fabric from other mills in later years to researchers (Glyn Vale, personal communication). Bonar Industries was selling a poor substitute in the shade "Peacock Blue" in June 2003, perhaps from the local mill, Modzone Enterprises. No technical details have been provided for this fabric, but it is clearly not genuine phthalogen blue.

Zimbabwe 1997
Genuine
IF3GM

xx -Zimbabwe 2003
Close imitation
in colour "Peacock Blue"
 
ETHIOPIA - The Awassa Textile Factory is a government-owned enterprise under the Ethiopian National Textiles Corporation; it is the largest such facility in Ethiopia. It was was established in November 1989.

Ethiopian fabrics from 1995-1997 were all nominally dyed "Phthalogen Blue", according to the factory manager, but no technical details were disclosed. The local name for this colour was "Somali Blue"; a similar "Royal Blue" with some reddish tint was also for sale at that time. Without forensic identification, it is difficult to make a definitive statement about the process that was used (Weaves), but it is clear that these fabrics were not dyed with Phthalogen Blue IF3GM, even though the colour match is good. The fabrics weathered poorly, and were easily stripped with chlorine bleach. From microscopic examination (Salvin, 1968),  a resin-bonded, pigment printing process may have been used instead of an ingrain dyeing process (Christie et al., 2000; Miles, 2003). Alternatively this excellent colour match could have been produced with a simple combination of direct dyes (given how they were easily stripped with chlorine bleach).

The last sample was provided by a tsetse researcher in March 2007 as an example of fabric from the retail market in Addis Ababa that is being used for tsetse traps. It had an original label from the Awassa factory dated February 2006. It is a dark, dull blue with considerable red tint approaching purple; it is clearly not phthalogen blue. This deep  blue is typical of a vat dye, and given excellent colour fastness outdoors, I think this recent fabric was dyed with an indanthrone derivative.


xx - Ethiopia 1995

xx - Ethiopia 1996

xx - Ethiopia 1997

xx - Ethiopia 2006
Three good matches and one poor match
KENYA - An August 2005 article on "textile business opportunities" in Kenya indicated considerable small-scale activity in the apparel industry, but this article stated that all of the former major textile mills were no longer  operational (EPZKenya). Since then, most of the fabric for sale in Kenya has likely been imported from Asia.

Two samples of blue cotton I obtained from Nairobi in 2003 were crudely similar to phthalogen blue,  but were not dyed with phthalogen blue IF3GM. I tested these samples outdoors for colour fastness; they both faded badly after only a few months. From their reflectance spectra, and fading properties, I think reactive dyes were used, most likely a combination of triphenodioxazine and anthraquinone dyes. These recent fabrics are close to phthalogen blue,  but are duller and more royal blue when compared with genuine phthalogen blue IF3GM reference fabrics. A similar sample I obtained in 2006 was a better colour match but was also not genuine phthalogen blue IF3GM.

Rivatex (closed in 1998) is now under the ownership of Moi University (News report on October 12, 2007) and may very well start to produce this type of fabric again. Tsetse researchers have been finding some genuine phthalogen blue fabric in East Africa in recent years, but have not disclosed their sources.


xx -Jinja 2003
Retail

xx -Drill 2003
Retail

xx - Jinja 2006
United Textiles
Two moderate and one very close match  

 

Colour Comparisons

Side-by-side comparisons of cloth dyed at about 5% owg
"Phthalogen Blue" cotton from Bonar, Zimbabwe 1997 on the left

Phthalogen

Anthraquinone / Indanthrone
Remazol R
Remazol
Brilliant Blue R
Procion M-R
Procion
Brilliant Blue M-R
Vat Blue 6 10 min
Vat Blue 6
10 min
Vat Blue 6 20 min
Vat Blue 6
20 min

Phthalogen

Triphenodioxazine
Procion H-EGN
Procion
Blue H-EGN
Cibacron F-GF
Cibacron
Blue F-GF
Procion Blue M-G
Procion
Blue M-G
 

Phthalogen

Phthalocyanines
Procion Turquoise M-G 9k New Cloth
Procion
Turquoise M-G
Procion Turquoise M-G Light Shade
Pro Turq M-G
(Lighter shade)
Cibacron Turquoise F-G 9k
Cibacron
Turquoise F-G


Direct Blue 86

Phthalogen

Other Chromophores
Cibacron F-R
Cibacron
Blue F-R
Cibacron F-G
Cibacron
Navy Blue F-G

 
 
 

Home Dyeing

Practical Advice from a "Novice Dyer"

These dark shades were produced on heavy-weight, natural (unbleached) cotton with a twill weave to obtain an opaque, textured fabric similar to the cotton "drill" fabrics used for tsetse traps in Africa (e.g. 200 ±  30 grams per square metre, or about an 8-10 oz bull denim fabric weight).

For examples of fabrics that are sold for home dyeing, see the extensive list at Dharma Trading. The "Mid-weight cotton twill denim PFD" is an excellent choice,  better than the specific bull denim  I used here. I have dyed samples of about 40 Dharma fabrics with Procion Blue H-EGN and Procion Turquoise M-G to test suitability. There are many good choices in duck/canvas and denim; similar weight tencel also dyes well, but is expensive. The same can be said about hemp/cotton. Finer "quilting" cottons are not opaque, even with high thread counts. The mercerized fabrics take up dye very well, but are more expensive. Rayon, linen and viscose fabrics all tend to have a bit of a sheen and are not suitable for traps. Altogether, an 8-10 oz. cotton twill denim (properly washed and scoured) remains a logical and economical choice.

A 3.5 to 4 yard length of 62-inch width bull denim (plan for 10+% shrinkage) can be dyed with a 2 oz. bottle (or less) of reactive dye (dry powder, by weight) to make enough deep blue fabric for three Nzi traps. This amount of fabric weighs about 2.5 pounds, or slightly more than 1 kilogram. For practical recipes on how to dye a "dark shade" in a either a tub or in a washing machine, see the instructions provided by Prochemical and Dye for reactive dyes. I more or less follow Prochem's instructions, but use longer times to ensure depth of shade (30 minutes in the dye bath, and 90 minutes in the fixative).

As an example - on the minimum setting on an Amana Model LWC80AW home washing machine, I can dye in a volume of 40 liters. Other machines might allow for a more practical, lower volume. To produce most of the colours here, I have been working at 5% dye owg (on weight of goods), and at about 4-5% salt concentration (a 1.5-2 kg bag of grocery store pickling salt). I have been using between 150-200 g of soda ash as a fixative ("pH up" at pool stores, but confirm that it is actually soda ash!). Temperature drops about 10 degrees when water is added as the tub heats up.  With a good home hot water heater, one can easily dye at a starting temperature of 55-60 degrees, when required for dyes like Remazol or the Turquoise dyes. Temperature falls about 10 degrees by the end of dyeing.

There are many possible variations on temperature, timing, dye and salt concentration, pH, etc., but one can get excellent results following the basic instructions provided by Prochem. More economical dyeing (e.g. at 3-4% owg) is possible if more cloth is dyed in a smaller volume of water, i.e. if one uses a lower liquor-to-goods ratio of about 1:10 or 1:20, and with better temperature control.

For dyes requiring very hot water (Procion H series, Direct Blue 86), and/or more difficult procedures (vat Dyes), a washing machine cannot be used. To do this type of dyeing by hand, use large stainless steel or enamel "stock pots" / "canning pots" / "brewing kettles" - taking proper precautions for the temperatures and types of solutions being handled. Note that aluminum, copper, iron, etc. pots cannot be used as they interfere with the chemistry. There is a tremendous amount of practical advice on the web.

The Procion Blue H-EGN and Vat Blue 6 results were obtained with the Prochem recipes for about a kg of bull denim in a 20-22 L volume. I used a 32 qt stock pot (stainless steel vegetable steamer made in China - CAN$45). I would, however, recommend using a larger pot for this amount of cloth. This size of pot is more amenable to dyeing 400-500 g of cloth, which is the typical amount for which Prochem and others provide basic recipes for various dyes. Level dyeing requires vigorous agitation, so it is far easier to work with small volumes.

 

CuPc Reactive Dyes

The Turquoise dyes based on copper phthalocyanine special attention  to obtain brilliant and fast colours in a deep shade. These results are for dye at about 5% owg and a 1:20 liquor ratio.

Use a high concentration of glauber's salt (7-10%), and a high temperature (50-60 °C) in the dye bath (30 min), and extended fixation (90 min). Even higher temperatures may aid fixation, but I have yet to test this.  Do not skimp on the salt as large amounts are critical for deep shades!  Use a "high" concentration of soda ash with gradual additions over 15 minutes (0.83% on final volume); the amounts recommended by Prochemical and Dye for dark shades are about right. Dyeing a large quantity of fabric in a washing machine is quite practical and produces acceptable results.

Post-treatment of CuPc-based reactive dyes with ultraviolet blocking agents may  improve light fastness, given promising results reported by Batchelor et al. (2003) for two dyes in this class. RIT® Sun-Guard belongs to this class of uv agents and is available to consumers. I have tested it once as a protectant for two CuPc-based reactive dyes, but noticed no difference in fading properties.

Weathering properties are shown in the table below for fabrics placed outdoors during summer in Russell, Ontario. Swatches were vertical with the twill weave facing west for maximum exposure to afternoon sun (how a trap is typically set). Many more examples for various dyes and fabrics are in Weathering of Fabrics. That section also includes a listing of light fastness ratings for most of the dyes listed on this page.

Results were similar with both the Cibacron (= Sabracon in the Prochemical and Dye catalogue) and Procion turquoise dyes. Colour was retained moderately well in the first month, faded noticeably in the second month, and faded considerably by the end of three months. Traps made from these fabrics performed well for as long as experiments continued, even with moderate fading. Both dyes are likely suitable for experimental work, so long as one uses traps for only a few months.

Cibacron dyes are now made by Huntsman following purchase of the Ciba business unit in 2006. The Cibacron dyes were renamed "NOVACRON" in 2007.

For a useful technical discussion, see the paper below. It can be downloaded as a PDF.

Hehlen, M. (1991) Effects of dye substantivity in dyeing cotton with reactive dyes. American Association of Textile Colorists and Chemists Review, November, 21-27.

 

Fading Properties of CuPc-based Reactive Dyes


Pantone® 300

New 1 Month 3 Months
Procion Turquoise M-G Procion Turquoise M-G 9k New Cloth Procion Turquoise M-G 2 months Procion Turquoise M-G at one month 10 k
Cibacron Turquoise F-G Cibacron Turquoise F-G New Cloth 9k Cibacron Turquoise F-G at one month 10k Cibacron Turquoise F-G 2 months

 

References

Batchelor, S.N., Carr, D., Coleman, C.E., Fairclough, L. & Jarvis, A. (2003) The photofading mechanism of commercial reactive dyes on cotton. Dyes and Pigments 59, 269-273.

Christie, R.M. (2001) Colour Chemistry. Cambridge, UK: The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Christie, R.M., Mather R.R. & Wardman R.H. (2000) The chemistry of colour application. Oxford, United Kingdom Blackwell Science.

Conneely, A., Smyth, W.F. & McMullan, G. (1999) A study of the microbial degradation of metal phthalocyanine textile dyes by high-performance liquid chromatography and atomic absorption. Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines 3, 552-559.

Gorenšek, M. & Sedeljšak, J. (2000) Improvement of colour fastness on cotton fabric dyed with turquoise reactive dyestuffs. "Izboljšanje obstojnosti obarvanj na bombažu s turkiznimi reaktivnimi arvili" (Czech with English summary). Tekstilec (Ljubljana), 43, 405-413.

Herbst, W. & Hunger K. (2004) Industrial organic pigments. Weinheim, Germany Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Hunger, K. (2003) Industrial dyes. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH.

Ingamells, W. (1993) Colour for textiles. A user's handbook. Bradford, UK: Society of Dyers and Colourists.

Kadish, K.M., Smith K.M. &  Guilard R. (2003) The porphyrin handbook. Volume 19. Applications of phthalocyanines. Amsterdam: Academic Press.

Loebbert, G. (1996) Phthalocyanine compounds. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Volume 18, Fourth Edition 18, 1043-1058.

Moser, F.H. & Thomas F.H. (1983) The Phthalocyanines. Volume II. Manufacture and applications. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.

Robertson, J. & Grieve M. (1999) Forensic examination of fibres. London: Taylor & Francis.

SDC & AATCC. (1971) Colour Index, Third edition. Bradford, UK: Society of Dyers and Colourists & American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists.

Meng, Q.-h., Yuan, Y.-q. & Xu, J. (2005) The structural characterization and dyeing properties of reactive turquoise blue G. Dyestuffs and Coloration, 42, 15-18.

Miles, L.W.C. (2003) Textile Printing. Bradford, UK: Society of Dyers and Colourists.

Osugi, M.E., Carneiro, P.A. & Zanoni, V.B. (2003) Determination of phthalocyanine textile dye, reactive turquoise blue, by electrochemical techniques. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, 14, 660-665.

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Updated
03-Mar-2012